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Reflective scope
Apr 24, 2018

Although the reflex scope is also called the "scope", it is not the same as the telescope mechanism. Its optical system is relatively simple, there is usually no amplification system, and therefore there is no inverted system. This kind of scope also has another name - the red dot scope, because the aiming mark of this scope is usually a red or bright orange spot. Of course, not all reflex scopes use light spots. Some may be crosshairs, rings, or other shapes. The spot shape is determined by the reticle built into the scope.

FIG. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of a common reflex sight. Inside the reflection scope there is a beam splitter. This beam splitter is coated with one or more layers of coating on its concave surface so that this side can transmit part of the light while reflecting part of the light. A reticle is provided at the focal point of the concave surface, and an illumination source is behind it. The light source may be a light emitting diode, a fluorescent material, or natural light. The concave surface of the beam splitter can reflect the light from the light source and output it in a parallel light manner. There is usually a negative crescent lens and the concave surface of the beam splitter to form a Mangin mirror system between the beam splitter and the light source to improve the collimation of the reflected light. Details are not drawn in the schematic. .

When using a reflex sight, the light from the target enters the human eye through the beam splitter and the human eye sees the real image of the target. The illumination light illuminates the reticle and the light is transmitted to the concave surface of the beam splitter. From this concave surface, the light is reflected into parallel light and enters the human eye. At this time, the human eye will see the image of the reticle (that is, the common spot) and the image of the target.

As mentioned earlier, the human eye is easily deceived. At this time, the human eye cannot recognize the real position of the reticle. It can only see the virtual image that it is reflected, and it is thought that it is entering the human eye through brain filling. The reverse extension of the light also creates the illusion that the reticle is in front of it. Because the image light coming into the human eye's reticle is a bunch of parallel light, the human eye can't judge its true distance and thinks this image is in infinity. In the end, the human brain sensed an image of “a beam of light emitted from the human eye and hitting the target”.

If the reflex rifle is combined with the firearm to return to zero, that is to say, the virtual "straight light emitted from the human eye" is adjusted to be parallel to the sight of the firearm itself. It can be used to shoot.

The advantages of reflex sights are obvious:

Simple structure, relatively low price, light weight, easy to carry;

There is no image magnification function, so there is no exit pupil limit, can be installed on the gun at any distance from the human eye; also because there is no image zoom function, so when you aim at both eyes can be observed at the same time, easy to grasp the battlefield situation ;

The aiming principle determines that the user can quickly aim at the target through it, which is especially suitable for fighting in a distance and high maneuvering state;

When the reflex scope fails, the original mechanical sight can be directly used for aiming, and there is no need to remove it specifically, and the reaction time can be shortened in an emergency situation.


Reflective sights also have some of the inherent disadvantages:

1. There is no image magnification function, which is not conducive to the sighting at a relatively long distance. However, this problem can be solved by installing in series with a telescopic sight.

2. The intensity of the existing illumination light source is weak, resulting in low brightness of the zoning image, and it is not easy to see the zoning particularly in a strong light environment.

3. It emits light outwards, so it may be detected by night vision observation equipment of the other party at night.

4. There is spherical aberration and coma aberration in the divided image (note that it is not parallax). It is easy to appear on some low-end, low-priced products. You will see a halo around the spot of the zoning image, or the spot is not a perfect circle but is elongated and deformed, which affects the accuracy of the aiming. The more complex the shape of the sculpted images, the more aberrations appear. The aberrations can be eliminated through multiple sets of curved prisms, but the cost will increase.

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